jawaban dari quiznya.
1. which of the following is not regarded as a church father?
a. ambrose of milan
b. frumentius of axum
c. methodius of olympus
d. theodore of mopsuestia
ambrose (340-397) was the bishop of milan who famously threatened emperor theodosius with excommunication and barred him from participating in the eucharist after theodosius massacred 7000 persons at thessalonica in 390.
methodius (died ca. 311) was the bishop of olympus (southcoast turkey today).
theodore (ca. 350-428) was the bishop of mopsuestia (in turkey also), and he was representative of the antiochene school of hermeneutics (contra alexandrian school).
frumentius (died ca. 383) was the bishop of axum, and he was credited to bring christianity to axum, northern of ethiopia.
2. all of the following were martyred for their faith with the exception of:
a. clement of rome
b. john of the cross
c. polycarp of smyrna
d. sharbil of edessa
clement (died ca. 96) was the bishop of rome. he was executed under the emperor trajan by being tied to an anchor and thrown into the sea.
polycarp (69-155) was the bishop of smyrna (westcoast turkey). he was stabbed after an attempt to burn him at the stake failed. on the day of his death, he said, “eighty and six years i have served him, how then can i blaspheme my King and Savior? bring forth what thou will.”
sharbil of edessa (in iraq today) was martyred in 112 ad.
john of the cross lived in the 16th century.
3. who may perhaps be attributed with the development of the new testament canon?
arius (250-336), a presbyter in alexandria, was the reason why we have the council of nicaea, which deals with his idea that the son is not equal with the father, that there was a time that the son was not.
athanasius (293-373), bishop of alexandria, was associated with the nicene creed. what we have right now is athanasian view of the son (of the same being with the father), not the arian view.
marcion (ca. 85-160) was perhaps the first person to formulate the list of authoritative books for the church, and he failed badly, since he rejected the whole old testament, and only retained excised luke and letters of paul. nevertheless, because of him the church realized the need to formulate the new testament canon (at that time, the general agreement was on the four gospels, the letters of paul, acts, 1 peter, 1 john; otherwise, there were differences on other general letters)
montanus (mid 2nd century) came from phyrgia, and he was perhaps the father of current pentecostals/charismatics.
4. the edict of milan was issued in:
a. 312 ad
b. 313 ad
c. 412 ad
d. 413 ad
edict of milan is the first edict that recognize christianity as a lawful religion in the roman empire. it was issued by the emperor constantine in 313 ad.
5. augustine is one of the church’s greatest theologian and philosopher. he wrote de civitate dei as a response to the sack of rome in 410 by the:
by the visigoths. later on they would embrace arianism before accepting nicene faith.
6. which monastic was known to have lived for 40 years at the top of a pillar between 15-20 meters high to serve as a living reminder of christ’s extreme sacrifice?
a. benedict of nursia
b. john cassian
c. antony of egypt
d. simeon the stylite
simeon the stylite. stylite/stylus ~ pillar.
7. the ecumenical councils were held in the following cities except:
rome! nicaea (325, 787), constantinople (381, 553, 680), ephesus (431). not mentioned: chalcedon (451) — total: 7 ecumenical councils.
8. he is credited with giving to us the various analogies of the trinity.
a. flavian of constantinople
b. gregory of nazianzus
c. john chrysostom
d. shepherd of hermas
gregory of nazianzus (330-390), archbishop of constantinople, one of the cappadocian fathers. his analogies of the trinity: egg, water, sun.
9. this is one of the first controversies in the early church:
a. the filioque controversy
b. the iconoclastic controversy
c. the novatian controversy
d. the christological controversy
filioque controversy: addition of the ‘and the son’ clause in the third part of nicene creed by the west. we believe in the holy spirit… who proceeds from the father and the son.
iconoclastic controversy: on whether two-dimensional portrait of christ and the saints are allowed.
novatian controversy: on whether the defects should be accepted back in the church after recanting their faith during the roman persecution.
christological controversy: two parts. first, on whether christ was fully god and fully man. second, on how christ was fully god and fully man. the first part is settled in the council of nicaea and constantinople, condemining arianism as heresy. although arianism soon would be popular in northern europe, it didnt take long before it died. the second part was discussed in the council of ephesus and chalcedon, resulting in three different churches: assyrian church of the east, oriental orthodoxy, and the roman/byzantine church (western catholic + eastern orthodoxy).
10. he is known as the ‘iron man’ who brought the christian faith into intellectual respectability.
b. justin martyr
origen, though he have a lot of weird ideas, also.
11. match the person on the left with the description on the right.
montanus………………“in hoc signo vinces”
tertullian………………..the creed of nicaea
athanasius……………..one of the cappadocians
pachomius……………..bishop of hippo
john of damascus……cenobitic monasticism
basil of caesarea……..“the blood of christians is seed”
constantine…………….defender of iconography
macrina………………….father of eastern monasticism
montanus: kataphyrgian heresy. kata = out of. phyrgia = where he came from, phyrgia. kataphyrgian heresy = heresy out of phyrgia.
tertullian: “the blood of christians is seed.”
tatian: diatessaron – harmonization of the four gospels. written in syriac.
athanasius: the creed of nicaea. our view of the trinity is athanasian.
pachomius: cenobitic monasticism. there are two types of monasticism: cenobitic (living in community) and eremitic (living in isolation).
john of damascus: defender of iconography (refer to iconoclastic controversy).
basil of caesarea: father of eastern monasticism (he is one of the cappadocians also).
constantine: “in hoc signo vinces”, in this sign — conquer, the vision that constantine saw before he fought maxentius. the sign was the chi rho sign (the first two letters of christ: ch r — chi rho). not to be confused with windows xp or emoticon XP.